Women's Representation in Elected Regional, (Sub)National Elective Bodies, and City Councils
At the regional and (sub)national level, despite vast differences in legal and political systems as well as sociocultural norms, the gender gap in the Arctic legislative and public administration bodies across the Circumpolar region persists to a greater or lesser extent in the numeric representation of different genders, gender differences in leadership positions, and gender-related clustering.
The UGEEA findings on women's political representation in the Arctic regions are available here.
Gender Earnings Gap in the Arctic
The evidence of the gender earnings gap is plentiful across the Arctic. UGEEA study collected the evidence of earnings (broadly defined) for all Arctic jurisdictions (at the regional level) for male and female earners in order to determine the size of the wage gap. As one may expect, the definitions of earnings varied among national datasets, but since we compared gender-specific earnings within the same region, this limitation was less of an issue.
More information about gender earnings gap in the Arctic regions is available here.
Gaps in the Share of Men and Women with Tertiary Education in the Arctic
An important indicator of gender empowerment is the educational attainment differential between men and women. As a proxy of human capital, educational attainment reflects an investment in human capacities and skills and may affect people's economic roles, including their earnings, although the relationship is not straightforward but complicated by demographic, occupational, geographic, and other factors.
The UGEEA findings clearly demonstrate that women in the Arctic have higher attainment of educational credentials than men. This is true in most Arctic regions, with very few exceptions. Feminization of Arctic's human capital, that is, the growing role of women in the human capital, has been described as a persistent trend over recent decades. Arctic women, taken as a group, are relatively more educated than men, and the gap is increasing.
The UGEEA findings on tertiary education gap in the Arctic are available here.
Legal and Political Indicators Contributing to Gender Empowerment in the Arctic
In the Arctic, the empowerment of all genders in national legal systems continues to exhibit significant heterogeneity bearing the imprint of the political, ideological, and sociocultural divides of the 20th century. The recent historical development of gender-relevant aspects of legal systems in the Arctic States reveals elements of both convergence and divergence. Presented in this table, the set of fundamental legal and political indicators contributing to gender empowerment in the Arctic plays a defining role in shaping and bolstering gender policies and influencing social gender norms and relations.
Detailed information on legal and political indicators of gender empowerment is available here.